Irrigation

Andhra Pradesh is situated in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. Telangana is situated at a high altitude in an up-land area. The river Godavari is flowing on the North and the river Krishna is flowing on the South in Telangana region. Apart from the major rivers, there are other small rivers such as Bhima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Praanahita, and Peddavagu and Taliperu.

In erstwhile Hyderabad State, medium projects, like Pocharam, Dindi, Palair, Vyra, Manair, Khanapur were constructed apart from Nizamsagar Project, which was completed in 1924-31. It was envisioned to utilize 58 TMC water to irrigate 2,75,000 acres of land in Nizamabad District.

 The total permitted utilization of water under Godavari and Krishna for Telangana region in erstwhile Hyderabad State was under 951 MOU. The following given table shows the River Basin with projects existing, under execution and contemplated.

GODAVARI BASIN :

EXISTING                                                                   Total TMC

1. Nizamsagar Project          58.00TMC

2. Medium Projects              60.00TMC

3. Minor Projects                35.00 TMC               

                                                                    153.00 TMC

UNDER EXECUTION                                                    Total TMC

1. Godavari Basin               364.00 TMC                   

2. Kadam                            53.00 TMC

3. Lower Manair                  12.00 TMC

4. Devanoor                       27.0 TMC

                                                                      465TMC

CONTEMPLATED

1. Ichampally Project           32.00 TMC

                                             TOTAL           609.00 TMC

KRISHNA BASIN :

EXISTING                                                                  Total TMC

1. Rajoli Banda                   15-90TMC                             

2.  Medium Projects            36-10 TMC

3. Miner Projects               90.80 TMC                

                                                                 142.00 TMC

 UNDER EXECUTION

1. Nagarjunsagar left canal  161.00 TMC

2. Tungabhadra left canal     19.00 TMC               

                                                                 180.00 TMC

   CONTEMPLATED

1. Upper Krishna Project       54.40 TMC

2. Bhima                          100.60 TMC               

                                                                   155.00 TMC

                                 Total                           322.00 TMC

 (TOTAL TMC OF WATER FOR GODAVARI AND KRISHNA BASIN  is 931.00 TMC)

After the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh, the proposed projects under Godavari, Krishna basin were not implemented. Also the water resources were diverted to the Andhra region.

Server projects envisaged under Godavari delta basin were ignored and Devnoor project was completely removed. The Pochampad project was sanctioned under pressure from Telangana leadership, but the entire water utilization under Godavari was now reduced from 400 TMC to 112 TMC. The reservoir capacity was finally sanctioned for storing 82 TMC of water. With this capacity, the Godavari valley projects irrigation is now reduced to 10.25 lakh acres from 40 lakh acres. Many projects sanctioned could not be implemented properly even after four decades of formation of Andhra Pradesh.

Usually the allocation of water is based on the available water in catchment area and the land available for irrigation. Under the Nagarjuna Sagar Project's left canal, 161 TMC of water should have been allocated, but only 82 TMC of water is available for irrigation.

The water allocation to the Andhra Pradesh state was 1480 TMC under Godavari basin and 856 TMC under Krishna basin. By looking at the ground facts, it is obvious that how much disparity has been shown on Telangana region. The given below are the facts of water allocation for Andhra and Telangana regions from Godavari and Krishna rivers.

The river Godavari flows for about 79% of its catchment area in Telangana. Geographically about 70% of Telangana land is suitable for irrigation. On this basis Telangana region should get 70% (1036 TMC) allocation out of 1480 TMC and the rest of 30% (144 TMC) only should have been allocated to Andhra region. But the ground realities are quite different and shocking. The water utilization under Godavari basin is about 760 TMC so far, out of which 320 TMC of water is being diverted to Andhra region as against 124 TMC. This resulted in diverting 281 TMC of water from Telangana region to Andhra region.

River Krishna is no different from river Godavari. River Krishna flows for about 68.5% in the catchment area in Telangana and 31.5% catchment in Andhra region. Only 37% of water (266.8 TMC) is allocated to Telangana region against 68.5%. Where as 500.1 TMC water is allocated to Andhra region. Only 27% of water is available for cultivable lands in Telangana. It means 50% of the Ayacut under Krishna basin in Telagana is not getting water.

The following table which shows how the total irrigated area in Telangana region decreased compared to Andhra region from the year 1956 97.

TOTAL IRRIGATED AREA IN HECTARES

ANDHRA

56-57

65-66

67-70

83-84

96-97

Srikakulam

21,600

2,44,000

2,54,000

1,83,000

1,60,000

Vizayanagaram

-

-

-

1,26,000

1,34,000

Visakhapatnam

1,99,000

1,39,000

1,71,000

1,02,000

1,24,000

East Godavari

2,99,000

2,39,000

2,37,000

4,30,000

4,01,000

West Godavari

3,65,000

2,74,000

2,88,000

5,24,000

4,25,000

Krishna

3,33,000

3,04,000

3,89,000

4,46,000

4,00,000

Guntur

2,08,000

2,62,000

3,64,000

3,56,000

3,10,000

Prakasham

-

-

85,000

1,30,000

1,30,000

Nellore

2,95,000

2,25,000

2,28,000

2,48,000

1,95,000

Chittore

2,05,000

91,000

1,13,000

86,000

98,000

Cuddapah

1,27,000

61,000

84,000

71,000

49,000

Anantapur

1,29,000

68,000

86,000

70,000

59,000

Kurnool

69,000

87,000

1,31,000

1,32,000

1,08,000

Total

24,45,000

19,44,000

25,35,000

29,04,000

25,93,000

 
TELANGANA

Ranga Reddy

55,000

 

 

26,000

14,000

Hyderabad

1,000

500

200

150

196

Nizamabad

1,33,000

1,15,000

1,32,000

1,53,000

71,000

Medak

1,15,000

75,000

69,000

93,000

38,000

Mahabub Nagar

1,19,000

80,000

72,000

1,00,000

35,000

Nalgonda

1,33,000

68,000

1,56,000

2,01,000

1,53,000

Warangal

1,26,000

1,14,000

1,32,000

1,28,000

98,000

Khammam

55,000

1,10,000

80,000

1,24,000

1,39,000

Karimnagar

1,45,000

1,01,000

81,000

1,42,000

1,28,000

Adilabad

31,000

31,000

37,000

49,000

42,000

Total

9,12,000

7,12,000

7,79,000

10,16,000

7,18,000

*Source:Director of Economics and Statistics, A.P.

The total irrigated area in Andhra region increased from 24.45 lakhs hectares to 26.00 lakhs hectares where as the total irrigated area in Telangana region decreased from 9.12 lakh hectares to 7.18 lakh hectares, about 22% decrease. This shows a dangerous trend of decreasing cultivable lands in Telangana.

The bar chart given below clearly shows the disparity between Coastal Andhra and Telangana region in utilising canal water for irrigation.

Region wise Total Irrigated Area

Region

Canal

Wells

Coastal Andhra

12,24,559

1,31,002

Rayalseema

1,24,567

1,68,077

Telangana

3,00,621

5,88,884

Distribution of surplus water under Krishna Basin

The Krishna water tribunal awarded 800 TMC of water for Andhra Pradesh. It also permitted to utilize the surplus water as a tail end state. It was agreed after prolonged discussions on utilization of surface water between Andhra and Telangana Regions, that the surplus water should be utilized in the ratio of 50-50 of the available water resources. The allocation was made as follows.

A) ANDHRA REGION

1) Telugu Ganga Project                                            29 TMC

2) Sreesailam Right Bank Canal                                   19 TMC

B) TELANGANA REGION

1)Sreesailam Left Bank Canal                                      30 TMC

2)Bheema Lift Irrigation                                            20 TMC

Though allocation was made as above, so far the benefits are being accrued under Telugu Ganga Project and SreeSailam Right Bank canal. These schemes are being implemented with World Bank Loan by merging Sreeramsagar Project (in Telangana) by showing it as AP II, AP-III. The SreeSailam bank canal is yet to be completed, and Bheema left irrigation project is kept under cold storage.

The future development of ayacut in Telangana is mainly dependent on the development and execution of Godavari river basin. Although The Andhra Pradesh Government has constituted Godavari utilization authority years back, so far there is no progress. The Inchampally and Polavaram Projects were planned on Godavari long back, but since last forty years interstate dispute was not resolved and these projects are kept pending.

Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra and Madhya Pradesh reached an agreement in1978 regarding Inchampally. As per this agreement, Andhra Pradesh can utilize only 85 TMC of water and the balance of water can be utilized only to generate Hydroelectric Power. The expenditure has to be borne by Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra & Madhya Pradesh at the ratio of 78%, 10.5% and 11.4% respectively. Andhra Pradesh will get 27% of the generated power. Experts believe that the Inchampally project would benefit Andhra region more than Telangana region. Out of 360 TMC of water, only 85 TMC will be utilized for irrigation in Telangana. The rest of the water after utilization for generation of power will flow down wards to Dhawaleswaram Barrage or to Polavaram project.

1) Pedda Bellalla (below the confluence of kadem)

2) VenKatapuram down stream of ichampaiiy

3) Yellampally (further down to Manchiryal)

4) Dummugudem (near Luxettipet)

With these minor and medium projects and with lift irrigation, at least 200 TMC of water can be utilized for 10 lakh acres in kharif and another 5 lakh acres in rabi seasons.

Click on the below links to have the detailed notes on the Irrigation projects on Krishna and Godavari basins respectively.

Krishna Basin Projects

Godavari Basin Projects

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